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Real-World Impact of Quitline Interventions for Provider-Referred Smokers. Song, G. Landau, AS. Gorin, TJ. Keithly, L. (2014).AJPM. 47(4) 392-402. DOI: 10.1016/j.amepre.2014.05.043.

Nearly Half of Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities Offer Counseling or Medication to Help Clients Quit Tobacco Use. SAMHSA N-SSATS report: data spotlight., June 2014.

Refocused & Rededicated. Legacy's Annual Report. 2013.

Is It Time for a Tobacco-free Military? Smith, EA. et al. (2014) NEJM. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1405976.

From the Sidelines to the Frontline: How the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration Embraced Smoking Cessation. Santhosh, L. et al. (2014). Am. J. Public Health. 104(5) 796–802. doi:10.2105/AJPH. 2013.301852.

Notes from the Field: Calls to Poison Centers for Exposures to Electronic Cigarettes — United States, September 2010–February 2014. Chatham-Stephens, K. et al. (April 4, 2014). MMWR, CDC. 63(13) 292-94.

Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Various Authors. (March 28, 2014). CDC. 63(12) 253-76.

Electronic Cigarettes and Conventional Cigarette Use Among US Adolescents. Dutra, LM, Glantz, SA. (2014). JAMA Pediatr. Published online March 06, 2014. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2013.5488

The Emergence of E-Cigarettes: A Triumph of Wishful Thinking over Science. Leone, FT, Douglas, IS. (2014). . AnnalsATS. 11(2) 216-219.

Impact of tobacco control policy on quitting and nicotine dependence among women in five European countries. Allen, JA. et al. (2014). Tob Control. 23:173–177. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050391.

Tobacco Cessation Among Low-Income Smokers: Motivational Enhancement and Nicotine Patch Treatment. Bock, BC. et al. (2014). Nicotine & Tobacco Research.16(4) 413–422. doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt166.

Quit Now? Quit Soon? Quit When You're Ready? Insights About Target Quit Dates for Smoking Cessation From an Online Quit Date Tool. Cobb, CO. et al. (2014). J Med Internet Res. 16(2) e55.

Implicit alcohol cognitions in risky drinking nicotine users with and without co-morbid major depressive disorder. Cohn, AM. et al. (2014). Addictive Behaviors. 39: 797-802. doi:10.1016/j.addbeh.2013.12.012.

Motivational interviewing versus brief advice for cigarette smokers in residential alcohol treatment. Rohsenow, DJ. et al. (2014). J Sub Abuse Treatment. 46:346-355. doi:10.1016/j.jsat.2013.10.002.

Ending Sales of Tobacco Products in Pharmacies. Brennan, TA, Schroeder, SA. (2014). JAMA. Published online February 5, 2014. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.686

Tobacco Use Screening and Treatment by Outpatient Psychiatrists Before and After Release of the American Psychiatric Association Treatment Guidelines for Nicotine Dependence. Rogers, E. Sherman, S. (2014). Am J Pub Health. 104:1,90-95.

Smoke, the Chief Killer — Strategies for Targeting Combustible Tobacco Use. Fiore, MC. Schroeder, SA. Baker, TB. (2014). NEJM. 370:4, 297-299. DOI: 10.1056/NEJMp1314942.

The War Against Tobacco: 50 Years and Counting. Cole, HM. Fiore, MC. (2014). JAMA. 311(2):131-132. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.280767.

Tobacco Control 50 Years After the 1964 Surgeon General’s Report. Schroeder, SA. Koh, HK. (2014). JAMA. 311(2):141-143. doi:10.1001/jama.2013.285243.


Impact of Seasonality on Recruitment, Retention, Adherence and Outcomes in a Web-based Smoking Cessation Intervention: Randomnized Controlled Trial. Graham, AL. et al. (2013). J Med Internet Res. 15:11,e249.

Geospatial Exposure to Point-of-Sale Tobacco: Real-Time Craving and Smoking-Cessation Outcomes. Kirchner, TR. et al. (2013). Am J Prev Med. 45:4,379–385.

Perceptions and Perceived Impact of Graphic Cigarette Health Warning Labels on Smoking Behavior Among U.S. Young Adults. Villanti, AC. et al. (2013). http://oxfordjournal.org, SRNT.doi:10.1093/ntr/ntt176.

Very little is known about the health effects of e-cigarettes. Tribune Content Agency Medical Edge from Mayo Clinic. (2013). Chicago Tribune: Health, Tribune Media Services.

SAMHSA N-SSATS report: treatment centers offering cessation services. National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services, SAMHSA. Septebmer 19, 2013. In 2011, 5,737 substance abuse treatment facilities, less than half (42 percent) of all such facilities nationwide, offered tobacco cessation services

Smoking Rate among Adults with Serious Psychological Distress Remains High. Center for Behavioral Health Statistics and Quality, SAMHSA. The CBHSQ Report. The report shows that current smoking among adults with SPD did not significantly decline from 1977 to 2011 (43.6% in 1977 and 42.1% in 2011). SPD is associated with serious mental illness.

SAMHSA/NSDUH report on smoking and mental illness or substance use disorder (March 2013)

SAMHSA press release, "Adults experiencing mental illness or a substance use disorder account for nearly 40 percent of all cigarettes smoked", March 20, 2013

The End of Tobacco - Endgame Proposals. Various authors. (2013). Tob Control. 22:1, i6-30.

Helping Smokers Quit Around the Time of Surgery Khullar, D. Schroeder, SA. Maa, J. (2013). JAMA. 309:10, 993-94.

Vital Signs: Current Cigarette Smoking Among Adults Aged ≥18 Years with Mental Illness — United States, 2009–2011 CDC, HHS. (2013). MMWR. 61: 1-7.

CDC Press Release, "Smoking among U.S. adults with mental illness 70 percent higher than for adults with no mental illness", Vital Signs report, February 5, 2013

SAMHSA/NSDUH report on smoking and mental illness (February 2013)

New Evidence That Cigarette Smoking Remains the Most Important Health Hazard Schroeder, SA. (2013). NEJM Editorial. 368:4, 389-390. A review of the following two articles:


Cost-effectiveness of internet and telephone treatment for smoking cessation: an economic evaluation of The iQUITT Study. Graham, AL. et al. (2012). http://group.bmj.com. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol.

Interventions to increase smoking cessation at the population level: how much progress has been made in the last two decades? Zhu, S-H et Al. (2012). Tobacco Control. 21:110-118.

Public perceptions of the ban on tobacco sales in San Francisco pharmacies Kroon, LA, Corelli, RL. (2012). TOBACCO CONTROL. 00:1-3.

Smoking Among Hospitalized Patientst Schroeder, SA. (2012). ARCH INTERN MED. 172(21); 1675-76.

Current Tobacco Use and Secondhand Smoke Exposure Among Women of Reproductive Age - 14 Countries, 2008-2010 (2012). MMWR. 61(43);877-882.

Utilizing clinical support staff and electronic health records to increase tobacco use documentation and referrals to a state quitline Greenwood, DA. Parise, CA. MacAller, TA et al. (2012). J. Vascular Nursing. 30 (4);107- 111.

Strategies to Help a Smoker Who Is Struggling to Quit Rigotti, NA. (2012). JAMA. 308 (15),1573-80.

How Clinicians Can Help Smokers to Quit Schroeder, SA. (2012). JAMA. 308 (15), 1586-87.

"Smoking in Low Socioeconomic Status Populations: Prevalence, Health Impact, Challenges and Recommendations" Break Free Alliance Report. (2012). Health Education Council.

"Smoking Policies and Practices in State Psychiatric Facilities: Survey Results from 2011" Final Report NASMHPD Research Institute (NRI). (2012).

Current Tobacco Use Among Adults in the United States: Findings From the National Adult Tobacco Survey King, BA. Dube, SR. Tynan, MA. (2012). Amer J Pub Health, Research and Practice. e1-e8.

Smoking Cessation and Its Predictors: Results from a Community- Based Pharmacy Tobacco Cessation Program in New Mexico Khan, N. Anderson, J. Du, J. Dale, T. Bachyrycz, AM. Namdar, R. (2012). The Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 46, 1-7.

Smokers More Likely to Try E-Cigarettes than Non-Smokers Legacy for Health Foundation. (2012). www.LegacyForHealth.org

Health Care Providers Advice to Quit Smoking, NHIS 2000, 2005, 2010 Kruger J, Shaw L, Kahende J, Frank E. (2012). CDC J: Preventing Chronic Disease, 9, 11_0340, 1-7

The Smoking Cessation Leadership Center: A Progress Report Parker SG. RWJF Progress Report, 2012

Will hospitals do the right thing?  The 2012 Joint Commission tobacco use performance measure set. Fiore M, Goplerud E, Schroeder SA. N Eng J Med 2012; 366: 1172-74

Helping Patients Quit: Implementing the Joint Commission Tobacco Measure Set in Your Hospital, Partnership for Prevention, Action to Quit. (2012).

Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence in Hospitalized Patients: A Practical Guide Center for Tobacco Research and Intervention, University of Washington. (2012).

An update about tobacco and cancer:  What clinicians should know. Schroeder SA.  J Cancer Educ.  2012 Mar; 27(1):5-10

Essential components for success: A smoking cessation programme in a group setting Southard C, Sell, H. Health Education Journal. 2012

Wound Healing and Infection in Surgery: The Pathophysiological Impact of Smoking, Smoking Cessation, and Nicotine Replacement Therapy, A Systematic Review Sorenson LT. Ann Surg 2012; 255:1069–1079

The American Lung Association's 2012 State of Tobacco Control Report January 2012


Understanding Excess Mortality in Persons with Mental Illness: 17-Year Follow Up of a Nationally Representative U.S. Survey, Druss, B.G., Zhao, L., Esenwein, S.V., Morrato, E.H., Marcus, S.C. (2011). Medical Care, 49(6), 599-604.

"An online survey of tobacco use, intentions to quit, and cessation strategies among people living with bipolar disorder" Prochaska, JJ. Reyes, RS. Schroeder, SA. (2011). Bipolar Disorders 13: 466–473.

Methadone Toxicity Due to Smoking Cessation—A Case Report on the Drug-Drug Interaction Involving Cytochrome P450 and Isoenzyme 1A2 Wahawisan, J. et Al. (2011). Annals of Pharmaco. 45:e34,1-4.

Prevalence of Heavy Smoking in California and the United States, 1965-2007 Pierce, JP. et Al. (2011). JAMA. 305:11, 1106-1112.

Targeting the Nation’s Leading Killer At A Glance 2011 Office of Smoking and Health, CDC. (2011).

Smoking Cessation Behavior Among Intermittent Smokers Versus Daily Smokers Tindle, HA. Shiffman, S. (2011) AJPH.101:7, 1-3.

Applying the Performance Partnership Model to Smoking Cessation: Lessons Learned by the Smoking Cessation Leadership Center Revell, CC. Meriwether, MB. (2011). Health Promotion Practice. 12:2, 125S–129S.

Pharmacists' Perceptions of Participation in a Community Pharmacy-Based Nicotine Replacement Therapy Distribution Program Hoch, MA. Hudmon, KS. Lee, L. Cupp, R. Aragon, L. Tyree RA. Corelli, RL. (2011) J Community Health. DOI 10.1007/s10900-011-9519-7

Depression, Smoking, and Heart Disease: How Can Psychiatrists Be Effective? Schroeder SA. Editorial. (2011).  American Journal of Psychiatry, 168:876-878.

Collaborating With Diabetes Educators to Promote Smoking Cessation for People With Diabetes : The California Experience MacAller, T. Brown, M. Black, K. Greenwood, D. (2011) The Diabetes Educator. 37: 625 DOI: 10.1177/0145721711416010.

Overlapping Epidemics: Tobacco and Diabetes Prevention and Control in California Tong, E. MacAller, T. Schillinger, D. (2011) University of California at SF and California Diabetes Program.

Treating Smokers in the Health Care Setting Fiore, MC. Baker, TB. (2011). NEJM Clinical Review. 365:1222-31.

Most Pregnant Women Need More Than Counseling to Quit Smoking, Study Suggests Join Together Staff. (2011) The Partnership at Drugfree.org.

Tobacco-Smoke Exposure in Children Who Live in Multiunit Housing Wilson, KM. Klein, JD.  Blumkin, AK. Gottlieb, M. Winickoff, JP. (2011) Pediatrics. 127:1, 85-92.

Primary Care Providers Advising Smokers to Quit: Comparing Effectiveness Between Those With and Without Alcohol, Drug, or Mental Disorders Ong, MK. Zhou, Q. Sung, H-Y. (2011). Nicotine and Tobacco Research Advance Access.

E-Cigarette or Drug-Delivery Device? Regulating Novel Nicotine Products Cobb, NK. Abrams, DB. (2011). N. Engl. J. Med.

Smoking and Mental Illness - Breaking the Link Prochaska, JJ. (2011). N. Engl. J. Med.

A Hidden Epidemic: Tobacco and Mental Ilness Legacy Foundation Report. (2011).

“Dental hygienists and savvy tobacco treatment.” Saucedo CB, Meriwether MB. Dentistry iQ. June 16, 2011

The Threat of Menthol Cigarettes to U.S. Public Health Benowitz, NL. Samet, JE. (2011). N. Engl. J. Med. 10.1056/nejmp1103610.


Don't Forget Tobacco - (2010). Schroeder SA and Warner KE. N. Engl. J. Med.  363:201-294.
Because important strides have been made in tobacco control, it is tempting to believe that the battle is largely won and that we should move on to other pressing public health issues. Dr. Steven Schroeder and Kenneth Warner argue that continued attention to tobacco control is warranted.

Confronting a Neglected Epidemic: Tobacco Cessation for Persons with Mental Illnesses and Substance Abuse Problems - Schroeder SA. Morris CD. Annual Review of Public Health, 31:297–314, 2010.

Nicotine Addiction Benowitz, NL. (2010). N. Engl. J. Med. 362:2295-303.

Do Quitlines Have a Role in Serving the Tobacco Cessation Needs of Persons with Mental Illnesses and Substance Use Disorders? The Behavioral Health Advisory Forum (BHAF), Background Report, September 2010.

Vital Signs: current cigarette smoking among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2009. (2010). Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR) 59(35), 1135-1140. For related information, please see Dr. Schroeder's commentary in SCLC's Communiqué, Issue #22.

Smoking characteristics of adults with selected lifetime mental illnesses: Results from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey. (2010). McClave AK, McKnight-Eily LR, Davis SP, Dube SR. American Journal of Public Health. Published online ahead of print October 21, 2010: e1-e9. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2009.188136.

A comprehensive model for mental health tobacco recovery in New Jersey. (2010). Williams JM, Zimmermann MH, Steinberg ML, Gandhi KK, Delnevo C, Steinberg MB, Foulds J. Administration and Policy in Mental Health. 2010 Nov 13. [Epub ahead of print].

A Comprehensive report: Tobacco use among consumers of services of the Missouri Department of Mental Health. (2010) Missouri Foundation for Health (MFH). This report shows high levels of tobacco use among people receiving mental health services.

Failure to treat tobacco use in mental health and addiction treatment settings: A form of harm reduction?
(2010). Prochaska, JJ. Drug and Alcohol Dependence. 110: 177–182.

Surgery is a 'Good Teachable Moment' to Help Smokers Quit. (2010). Alden S, Health Behavior News Service. July 6, 2010.

Increasing tobacco cessation in America: A consumer demand perspective. (2010). Orleans CT, Mabry PL, Abrams DB. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 38(3S) S303-S306. The US National Tobacco Cessation Collaborative (NTCC) has developed a supplement to American Journal of Preventive Medicine focused on Consumer Demand. The aim of the supplement is to call attention to bring a consumer-oriented perspective to population-level tobacco cessation efforts—in order to increase the demand for, and use and reach of, evidence-based treatments, and to spur the wider adoption of policy changes that will make these treatments affordable, accessible, and easier to use.

The articles and commentaries reflect the view that if we could increase consumer’s demand for evidence-based tobacco cessation products and services, many more people would attempt to quit, and would succeed in doing so. To view the articles, please visit the NTCC home page at http://www.tobacco-cessation.org

Click here to access the online version of the March 2010 Supplement to AJPM.

Simplicity sells making smoking cessation easier. (2010). Bonniot Saucedo C, Schroeder SA. Increasing tobacco cessation in America, A consumers perspective. American Journal of Preventive Medicine Supplement. 38(3S): S393-S396.

Pharmacists adopt, simple but powerful, tobacco-cessation tools. (2010). American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Intersections Magazine.


Methadone-Nicotine Interactions in Methadone Maintenance Treatment Patients Elkader, AK. et Al. (2009). J Clin. Psychopharm. 29:3, 231-238.

Beliefs about the health effects of “thirdhand” smoke and home smoking bans - Winickoff JP, Friebely J, Tanksi S E, Sherrod C, Matt C G , Hovell M F, and  McMillen RC. Pediatrics Vol. 123 No. 1 (pp. e74 -e79) (2009)

Smoking cessation during substance abuse treatment: What you need to know - Baca CT and Yahne CE. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 36:205-219, 2009.

What surgeons can do to reduce the impact of smoking on surgical outcomes. (2009). Maa J, Warner D, Schroeder SA. Bulleton of the American College of Surgeons. November 2009.

Addressing Tobacco Use in Homeless Populations - Break Free Alliance, October 21, 2009

Addressing tobacco use disorder in smokers in early remission from alcohol dependence: The case for integrating smoking cessation services in substance use disorder treatment programs. (2009). Kalman D, Kim S, DiGirolamo G, Smelson D, Ziedonis D. Clinical Psychology Review. doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2009.08.009.

FDA analysis finds toxins, carcinogens in electronic cigarettes. (2009). Mitchell D. AAFP News Now.

Clinical crossroads: A 51 year old woman with bipolar disorder who wants to quit smoking. (2009). Schroeder SA. The Journal of the American Medical Association. 301:522-531.

Surgery as a Teachable Moment: Lost Opportunities to Improve Public Health- Warner D, Archives of Surgery 2009;144(12):1106-1107.


Stranded in the Periphery-The Increasing Marginalization of Smokers - Schroeder, SA., The New England Journal of Medicine, May 23, 2008, N ENGLJ MED 358;21

Clinical Practice Guideline - Treating Tobacco Use and Dependence: 2008 Update U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Public Health Service. (2008).

Tobacco use among individuals with schizophrenia: what role has the tobacco industry played? Prochaska JJ, Hall SM, Bero L. Schizophrenia Bulletin 2008;34:555-567.

Treating tobacco dependence in clinically depressed smokers: Effect of smoking cessation on mental health functioning. Prochaska JJ, Hall SM, Tsoh J, Eisendrath S, Rossi JS, Redding CA, Rosen AB, Meisner M, Humfleet G, Gorecki J.American Journal of Public Health 2008;98:446-448.

Study Finds Big Social Factor in Quitting Smoking New York Times, Gina Kolata, Published: May 22, 2008. A new study finds that quitting smoking is seldom an individual decision and that smokers tend to quit in groups.

Strategies to Enhance Tobacco Cessation in Your Hospital. Alan J. Zillich, Frank Vitale, and Karen S. Hudmon. Copyright 2008 American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. From Safety and Quality Pearls 1 (www.ashp.org/bookstore). Used with permission.

Smoking Cessation and Mental Health: What Social Workers Should Know. Reprinted with permission from NASW Specialty Practice Sections, 750 First Street, N.E. Suite 700 Washington , DC 20002-4241 , USA . ATOD, June 2008 . No use or content can be made without written consent of the NASW Press.

Smoking Programs Succeed for Plans and Patients - Butcher, Lola, Managed Care, June 2008


We Can Do Better - Improving the Health of the American People - Shattuck Lecture, Schroeder, SA., The New England Journal of Medicine, September 20, 2007, N ENGLJ MED 357;12

The Hidden Epidemic- Schroeder, SA., Washington Post, Op-ed, Sunday, November 18, 2007

Active Smokers and the Risk for Type 2 Diabetes, JAMA- The Journal of the American Medical Association - December 12, 2007, Vol. 298, No. 22

Practice-Based Referrals to a Tobacco Cessation Quit Line: Assessing the Impact of Comparative Feedback vs General Reminders, Ann Fam Med. 2007 March; 5(2): 135142. William C. Wadland, MD, MS, Jodi Summers Holtrop, PhD, CHES, David Weismantel, MD, MS, Pramod K. Pathak, PhD, Huda Fadel, MPH, PhD, and Jeff Powell, MS

Smoking cessation: tactics that make a big difference, Agnes O. Coffay, Journal of Family Practice. Oct. 1, 2007

Smoking Cessation for the Busy Clinician, Alan J. Zillich, Robin L. Corelli, and Karen S. Hudmon, The RX Consultant, September 2007, Volume XVI Number 8

Tobacco Cessation and Prevention Implementation Program - Pharmacist-Assisted Class: Implementation Guide, Bentz, C., MD., Gray,M. CHES , Swan, C., Providence Health and Services.

Intensive smoking cessation intervention reduced mortality in high-risk smokers with cardiovascular disease Mohiuddin SM, Moossan AN, Hunter CB, et al. ACP Journal Club, July/August. 2007, Vol. 147. Number 1

Physician Related & Practice Patterns Related to Smoking Cessation A report prepared for the American Legacy Foundation by the Association of American Medical Colleges- 2007

Tobacco still is oral health enemy number one, Journal of the American Dental Association vol. 137 Feb. 2007


A smoking cessation intervention for the methadone-maintained Stein, MD. et Al. (2006). The Authors. Journal Compilation. SSA. Addiction: 101, 599-607.

The Top Priority: Building a Better System for Tobacco- Cessation Counseling Orleans, T. (2006). Am J Prev Med. 31:1, 103-106C.

Conguencies in Increased Mortality Rates, Years of Potential Life Lost and Causes of Death Among Public Mental Health Clients in Eight States Colton, CW. Manderscheid, RW. (2006). Prev Chronic Dis. 3:2.

Should emergency departments help smokers quit? Schroeder, SA. (2006). Editorial. Annals Emergency Medicine. 48:415-16.

Varenicline--a new designer drug to help smokers quit Schroeder, SA. Sox, HC. (2006). Editorial. Annals of Internal Medicine. 145:10, 784-85.

VA in the Vanguard: Building on Success in Smoking Cessation Government Printing. To request a limited hard copy please contact us.


What to do with a patient who smokes Schroeder, SA. (2005). JAMA—the Journal of the American Medical Association, 294 (4).

The importance of system-level changes to encourage clinician intervention in helping smoking patients quit: Simplicity matters Revell, C. Schroeder, SA. (2005). Nicotine and Tobacco Research.

A Double-blind Placebo-Controlled Trial of Bupropion Sustained-Release for Smoking Cessation in Schizophrenia Evins, AE. Cather, C. et al. (2005). J Clin Psychopharmacology, 25 (3), 218-25.

Independent Effects of Tobacco Abstinence and Bupropion on Cognitive Function in Schizophrenia Evins, AE. Deckersbach, T. et al. (2005). J Clin Psychiatry, 66 (9), 1184-90.

Tobacco sales in pharmacies: time to quit Hudman KS, Fenlon CM, Corelli RL, Drokhorov, AV. (2005). Tobacco Control, 15, 35-38.

Smoking cessation counseling in U.S. hospitals: a comparison of high and low performers Williams SC, Morton DJ, Jay KN, Koss RG, Schroeder SA, Loeb JM. (2005). J Clin Outcomes Manage, 12 (7), 345-352.

2003 - 2004

The tobacco buyout and the FDA Schroeder, SA. (2004). New Engl J Medicine, 351, 1377-80.

Merchandising of Cigarettes in Pharmacies: 27 years later Eule, B, Sullivan, MK, Schroeder, SA, Hudmon, KS. (2004). Tobacco Control, 13, 429-431.

Tobacco Control in the Wake of the 1998 Master Settlement Agreement Schroeder, SA. (2004). New Engl J Med Special Report, 350, 293-301.

Tobacco Settlement Helping to Ensure Profitability of Industry Join Together staff. (2004). Join Together, The Partnership at DrugFree.org.

Kicking butt: Primary care physicians can help smokers quit Landers, SJ. (2003). American Medical News.


Conflicting dispatches from the tobacco wars Schroeder, SA. (2002). New Engl J Med, 347,1106-09.

Effect of smoke­free workplaces on smoking behaviour: systematic review Fichtenberg, CM, Glantz, SA. (2002). BMJ.com, Vol. 325.